Frequently asked questions
about warning systems

What is an electronic siren?

An electronic siren is an electronic device intended for use as a warning device for signalling incoming danger. It can emit a typical, loud fluctuating sound. Stationary sirens serve to provide early mass public warning against or during natural disasters, fires, industrial accidents, or to sound air raid or chemical alerts at the times of war.

More information

What is a mobile electronic siren?

A mobile electronic siren is a siren installed on cars and other vehicles used for mass warning. A car with a siren mounted can quickly and operatively move in an endangered area following the current occurrence of danger, and thus warn the population over a large area.

A mobile electronic siren is suitable for use in the event of an emergency in remote locations or areas without a warning system.

More information

What does early warning mean? How do early warning systems work?

A warning system warns the population of imminent danger. Historically, it was primarily a military threat and a threat of natural disasters. Modern industrial production led to the occurrence of industrial accidents, and the current situation in the world is also terrorist attacks. Early warning ensures better preparedness for danger and makes it possible to mitigate or avoid the dangerous consequences altogether. Modern mass warning systems using electronic sirens are the most reliable and effective method of public mass warning in emergencies.

More information

What is the importance of early warning system?

A comprehensive early warning system is implemented as a chain of information and communications systems, and it includes a monitoring system for event detection, risk analysis and decision-making subsystems, and the warning and notification system per se. Together, they provide the population in the affected area with sufficient time to prepare for an adverse situation or emergency, thus minimising the impacts.

More information

What is a notification system?

An automated notification system is designed for fast and efficient delivery of messages to the designated persons in charge of dealing with emergency and rescue operations, or persons who may be endangered by such an emergency. The messages used can be voice messages sent through the public or mobile telephone network, or text messages sent in the form of SMS or electronic mail (e-mail) messages.

More information

What is an electronic bell?

An electronic church bell is intended as a substitute for classical church bells and offers a variety of applications. In addition to faithfully imitating the sound of real bells, the electronic church bell can also be used to play pre-recorded announcements, reproduce live voice from a microphone, or directly broadcast a church service from the Vatican via FM radio.

More information

What is a hydroelectric dam?

Water reservoirs and hydropower plants perform several essential functions: they manage the supply of drinking water, supply water to industrial and agricultural customers, serve as flood protection constructions, and generate electricity. However, there are many risks associated with their operation.

What happens in case of a dam rupture? Why is it dangerous?

Damage to a dam can lead to uncontrolled leakage of vast amounts of water into the surroundings, having fatal consequences for people living near the dam and for those in the direction of the rolling flood wave. Incidents at dams or hydroelectric plants are relatively rare. Yet, the casualties and damage caused when this happens are far-reaching.

More information

What is a dam warning system?

An autonomous safety system for dams and hydroelectric plants consists of three separate components:

  • Warning system, consisting of sirens and a control room/centre
    • Notification system designed to send text or voice messages to the designated people
    • Monitoring system, including various types of sensors and control units

The main task of the autonomous dam warning system is to ensure early warning and notification of the population. If the control system interprets signals sent out of the monitoring system as critical, it immediately displays the data on a monitor and notifies the operator by sending an acoustic signal from the local siren. Unless the operator actively intervenes in the process, in 5 minutes it automatically activates the entire warning system installed in the endangered area.

More information

What is a tsunami warning system?

A tsunami early warning and notification system combines a forecasting and monitoring subsystem with sensors and an acoustic warning subsystem of electronic sirens. Tsunami early warning and notification systems are very popular in regions with a high tsunami risk as they can significantly eliminate casualties.

More information

What is an earthquake warning system?

An earthquake warning system warns the population of an expected earthquake. At the heart of the system are reliable seismic sensors that can detect any slight vibrations. It is only a few seconds or minutes left for people afterwards to seek and find a rescue, so the warning tone must sound immediately.

The early warning system against earthquakes and other natural catastrophes consists of:

  1. Monitoring system
    2. Communications system for data transmission
    3. Control centres
    4. Pavian electronic sirens

More information

What is monitoring station?

Monitoring stations can measure a variety of parameters such as weather conditions, water levels, concentrations of hazardous substances in the air, structural stability and many more. They are set up to send information to a control centre. When critical values ​​are exceeded, they automatically activate sirens, beacons, or put other technological devices into operation.

More information

What is public address system?

A public address system (or PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment. It increases the apparent volume (loudness) of a human voice, musical instrument, or other acoustic sound source or recorded sound or music. PA systems are used in any public venue that requires that an announcer, performer, etc. be sufficiently audible at a distance or over a large area.

More information

What is software for control centres?

Software for Control Centres Vektra®  is a server-client based system of modern software applications that enable operators to control acoustic warning devices, manage rescue and emergency operations automatically, summon task forces, rescue and emergency staff meetings and that keep the emergency management under control and automate the management of processes during the rescue and emergency operations.

As standard, the individual applications are procured and supplied independently, depending on client needs; however, they are designed in the way to be easily interconnected to form a whole single system.

More information

What is control device?

An operator interface is a device (or more) by which the operator gives orders to the controller of a process and receives from the controller the process current state. Telegrafia provides a complete range of operator control products and systems for manual control processes.

More information