Frequently asked questions
about warning systems

What is an electronic siren?

An electronic siren is an electronic device intended for use as a warning device for signalling incoming danger. It can emit a typical, loud fluctuating sound. Stationary sirens serve to provide early mass public warning against or during natural disasters, fires, industrial accidents, or to sound air raid or chemical alerts at the times of war.

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What is a mobile electronic siren?

A mobile electronic siren is a siren installed on cars and other vehicles used for mass warning. A car with a siren mounted can quickly and operatively move in an endangered area following the current occurrence of danger, and thus warn the population over a large area.

A mobile electronic siren is suitable for use in the event of an emergency in remote locations or areas without a warning system.

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What does early warning mean? How do early warning systems work?

A warning system warns the population of imminent danger. Historically, it was primarily a military threat and a threat of natural disasters. Modern industrial production led to the occurrence of industrial accidents, and the current situation in the world is also terrorist attacks. Early warning ensures better preparedness for danger and makes it possible to mitigate or avoid the dangerous consequences altogether. Modern mass warning systems using electronic sirens are the most reliable and effective method of public mass warning in emergencies.

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What is the importance of early warning system?

A comprehensive early warning system is implemented as a chain of information and communications systems, and it includes a monitoring system for event detection, risk analysis and decision-making subsystems, and the warning and notification system per se. Together, they provide the population in the affected area with sufficient time to prepare for an adverse situation or emergency, thus minimising the impacts.

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What is a notification system?

An automated notification system is designed for fast and efficient delivery of messages to the designated persons in charge of dealing with emergency and rescue operations, or persons who may be endangered by such an emergency. The messages used can be voice messages sent through the public or mobile telephone network, or text messages sent in the form of SMS or electronic mail (e-mail) messages.

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What is an electronic bell?

An electronic church bell is intended as a substitute for classical church bells and offers a variety of applications. In addition to faithfully imitating the sound of real bells, the electronic church bell can also be used to play pre-recorded announcements, reproduce live voice from a microphone, or directly broadcast a church service from the Vatican via FM radio.

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What is a hydroelectric dam?

Water reservoirs and hydropower plants perform several essential functions: they manage the supply of drinking water, supply water to industrial and agricultural customers, serve as flood protection constructions, and generate electricity. However, there are many risks associated with their operation.

What happens in case of a dam rupture? Why is it dangerous?

Damage to a dam can lead to uncontrolled leakage of vast amounts of water into the surroundings, having fatal consequences for people living near the dam and for those in the direction of the rolling flood wave. Incidents at dams or hydroelectric plants are relatively rare. Yet, the casualties and damage caused when this happens are far-reaching.

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What is a dam warning system?

An autonomous safety system for dams and hydroelectric plants consists of three separate components:

  • Warning system, consisting of sirens and a control room/centre
    • Notification system designed to send text or voice messages to the designated people
    • Monitoring system, including various types of sensors and control units

The main task of the autonomous dam warning system is to ensure early warning and notification of the population. If the control system interprets signals sent out of the monitoring system as critical, it immediately displays the data on a monitor and notifies the operator by sending an acoustic signal from the local siren. Unless the operator actively intervenes in the process, in 5 minutes it automatically activates the entire warning system installed in the endangered area.

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What is a tsunami warning system?

A tsunami early warning and notification system combines a forecasting and monitoring subsystem with sensors and an acoustic warning subsystem of electronic sirens. Tsunami early warning and notification systems are very popular in regions with a high tsunami risk as they can significantly eliminate casualties.

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What is an earthquake warning system?

An earthquake warning system warns the population of an expected earthquake. At the heart of the system are reliable seismic sensors that can detect any slight vibrations. It is only a few seconds or minutes left for people afterwards to seek and find a rescue, so the warning tone must sound immediately.

The early warning system against earthquakes and other natural catastrophes consists of:

  1. Monitoring system
    2. Communications system for data transmission
    3. Control centres
    4. Pavian electronic sirens

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What is monitoring station?

Monitoring stations can measure a variety of parameters such as weather conditions, water levels, concentrations of hazardous substances in the air, structural stability and many more. They are set up to send information to a control centre. When critical values ​​are exceeded, they automatically activate sirens, beacons, or put other technological devices into operation.

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What is public address system?

A public address system (or PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment. It increases the apparent volume (loudness) of a human voice, musical instrument, or other acoustic sound source or recorded sound or music. PA systems are used in any public venue that requires that an announcer, performer, etc. be sufficiently audible at a distance or over a large area.

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What is software for control centres?

Software for Control Centres Vektra®  is a server-client based system of modern software applications that enable operators to control acoustic warning devices, manage rescue and emergency operations automatically, summon task forces, rescue and emergency staff meetings and that keep the emergency management under control and automate the management of processes during the rescue and emergency operations.

As standard, the individual applications are procured and supplied independently, depending on client needs; however, they are designed in the way to be easily interconnected to form a whole single system.

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What is control device?

An operator interface is a device (or more) by which the operator gives orders to the controller of a process and receives from the controller the process current state. Telegrafia provides a complete range of operator control products and systems for manual control processes.

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What is a flood warning system?

Modern flood warning systems help to protect lives by giving early warning in high-risk areas, such as areas around rivers or watercourses. Such a warning system is made up of electronic sirens, thanks to which information about the approaching danger reaches the inhabitants immediately.

The sirens are connected to a central monitoring system (e.g. the Vektra® software) equipped with installed sensors, sending a threat signal automatically or after manual activation. The signal input immediately activates the warning system.

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What is a national warning system?

Countries build public warning systems to protect their populations against so-called general threats. These mainly include threats from natural disasters, industrial accidents and, regarding the current world situation, threats of terrorist and military attacks.

Despite the existence and use of various forms of warning message delivery to the population in danger, such as television, radio, or mobile phones, public warning systems based on electronic sirens with their own communication infrastructure represent the most reliable and effective public mass warning in endangered areas.

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What is a public warning system?

The early mass public warning against natural disasters, terrorist and military attacks, and other man-made disasters is one of the fundamental responsibilities of every modern state. In such situations, it is necessary to ensure that as great a number of people as possible within the endangered area are warned by a sound and sometimes visual warning. The procurement and operation of public warning systems are within the responsibility of specialised government departments. In some countries, the responsibility for the warning of occupants within the endangered area in the event of an industrial accident is transferred directly to industrial plants as their operation or production presents an environmental risk. Therefore, they are obligated either to establish and operate such systems or co-finance the corresponding costs.

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What is a city or municipal warning system?

City warning systems, like national warning systems, are built against so-called general hazards like floods, fires, and other disasters. The relationship between national and city or municipal warning systems is governed by country-specific legislation.

A city or municipal public warning system is designed so that local government officials can inform the inhabitants of any impending dangers within several seconds.

Such a warning system is controlled from the main control centre, equipped with the Vektra® software. The software, in addition to controlling and monitoring the sirens and communications channels, also effectively supports processes at the site after declaring an emergency.

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What is an industrial warning system?

Early warning and notification systems for industrial facilities meet stringent requirements. They can guarantee the reliable operation of industrial plants in typically harsh environments. They warn in case of an increased risk of explosion or fire and inform about the occurrence of an emergency or accident and the procedures associated with evacuation. Modern warning technologies, such as electronic sirens, public address systems and other acoustic warning devices, are now becoming crucial.

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What is an oil and gas industrial warning system?

Early warning solutions in oil refineries are based on the results of analyses of typical risks and their impacts. Based on these,  the workplaces at risk in refineries, oil wells, oil field areas, or also their surrounding areas are covered by acoustic (electronic sirens) and visual warning signals.

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What is a mine and quarry warning system?

To ensure their maximum safety, people in quarries or open-pit mines must be acoustically informed about any explosion. The integrated Screamer electronic siren can be used as a warning device and situated in the centre of the area to be sounded. For rugged, sprawling mines or quarries, it is advisable to use a siren with a higher output, either the integrated stand-alone Bono siren or the Gibon electronic siren.

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What is fire station automation?

Fire station automation is essential because it can significantly shorten the critical interval between receiving an emergency call and departing a firefighting unit to the scene.

With automation, the time to carry out all required activities is remarkably reduced. Also, the possibility of human error is eliminated, which significantly contributes to the success of the firefighting operation. In addition, the automation of fire stations can bring other new, previously non-existent possibilities, such as remote control of a fire station from a regional operational centre.

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What is a mass warning?

Mass warning is a process used to inform large numbers of people quickly and efficiently about dangerous situations or disasters that may occur, such as floods, fires, earthquakes, extreme weather conditions, or military attacks. Mass warning is a critical element in the crisis management system and ensures that the population is promptly informed of the danger. It aims to minimise damage and ensure the safety of the people in a given region. Mass warnings can take place in numerous ways: through electronic sirens, SMS messages, voice announcements, mobile applications, and social media.

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What are local warning systems?

Local warning systems are security systems that provide fast and reliable information about threats and dangerous situations and enable residents to take the necessary steps to protect their lives and property.

Local warning systems can be based on a variety of technologies, such as sirens, public address announcements, text or voice messages to mobile phones, mobile apps, and websites. These systems are used for various threats, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, explosions, and accidents.

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What is notification and summons?

Notification is the process of informing an operator of an impending danger in time to eliminate it effectively. The notification system and the connected sensors monitoring hazardous substances provide timely information about incoming threats. Thanks to this system, the operator can react almost immediately, even if they are on a lunch break or inspecting other equipment and are not at the control desk. The primary function of the notification system is to notify of an emergency. The primary function of summons is to summon the required/responsible persons through several independent channels, either by telephone or by sending a text message describing the event.

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What is a comprehensive solution for fire stations?

A comprehensive fire station solution includes a number of key elements that help automate and efficiently manage fire station call-outs, workforce, and resources. One of the key elements of this solution is call-out automation. The call-out automation systems can be programmed to automatically activate in the event of a fire alarm, which can significantly reduce a fire station’s response time. Another critical element is the management of workforce/human resources and assets. Workforce and resource management software can help ensure that resources are appropriately used, and the flow of resources can be optimised based on specific needs and conditions.

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What is a mass warning system for airports?

A mass warning system for airports is used to warn people in these areas about hazards or situations that require an immediate response. Even a minor security breach at an airport can have far-reaching consequences. There are several risks, such as the vagaries of the weather or collisions with birds. Birds can seriously damage an aircraft engine, especially during take-off and landing manoeuvres, so they should be kept away from the airport. This system usually includes PA systems, electronic sirens, voice devices, beacons, and other devices.

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What is a mass warning system for ports?

A mass warning system for ports is a security system used to warn people and ships in a port in the event of hazards such as severe weather, tidal waves, explosions, or other accidents. This system consists of electronic sirens located in different parts of the harbour, capable of emitting different sound signals to announce various types of hazards. The sirens can be controlled centrally to broadcast coordinated sound signals throughout the port area.

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What is a warning system in the steel industry?

A warning system in the steel industry is a system that serves to detect and identify potentially dangerous situations in a steel plant and allows preventative measures to be taken, such as activating warnings and notifications via electronic sirens and activating sensors. The aim of the warning system in the steel industry is to minimise the risk of accidents and injuries to employees and property damage.

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What is a warning system in the energy industry (for nuclear power plants)?

An early warning and notification system for nuclear power plants is a large warning system within a radius of about 20 km of the plant, using hundreds of electronic sirens. The system meets all the requirements for reliable operation in the typically harsh conditions of nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plant malfunctions and accidents pose risks to the health of workers, the public and the environment. Warning systems are an essential part of safety measures in the power industry. Their use can help minimise the risk to operations and protect human life and property.

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What is a warning system in the chemical industry?

A warning system in the chemical industry is an integrated complex system designed to identify and warn of possible hazards arising in the chemical processing process. This system includes sensors and monitoring devices that monitor various parameters such as temperature, pressure, and gas concentration. If a deviation from a safe operating mode is detected, the system automatically sends a warning to the operator so that he can immediately take the necessary measures to minimise the risks.

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What is a school warning system, and how does it work?

A school warning system is usually designed to alert students, teachers, and others in the school environment to danger or other emergencies. When a sensor detects a hazard, the main control unit activates an electronic siren and sends a warning announcement to the entire school environment. These systems may also be equipped with a voice announcement feature that allows teachers or school administrators to broadcast alerts and instructions directly over the system’s speakers (public address system). In addition, they can be connected to local emergency services such as fire or police, who can be alerted to the situation and arrive at the scene.

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What is a warning system for ski resorts, and how does it work?

A warning system based on electronic sirens for ski resorts is a security system that warns skiers of dangers like approaching avalanches, closed slopes, and extreme weather conditions. The system consists of electronic sirens placed at strategic points in the resort, such as at the top of the hill, at the beginning and end of the slope, or the entrance to an area with avalanche risk. When danger is detected, the resort manager can activate the sirens using a central control panel. The sirens give an audible warning, alerting skiers to the current threat and urging them to take the necessary safety precautions.

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What is an avalanche warning system, and how does it work?

An avalanche warning system is one method to inform and warn people in the mountains about the threat of an avalanche. The system works by emitting sound signals from electronic sirens placed in areas with avalanche danger. The system usually consists of several components, such as sensors, control units and sirens. When an avalanche hazard is detected, the control unit activates the electronic sirens, emitting sound signals to the surrounding environment. The system aims to inform people in the vicinity of the avalanche threat and enable them to leave the dangerous area and hide to safety quickly.

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